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Shoreline Master Programs


Analysis and Classification of Aquatic Systems


Collins, Brian D., Montgomery, D. R., and Amir J. Sheikh. 2003. Reconstructing the Historical Riverine Landscape of the Puget Lowland, in Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers, Montgomery, et. al. Seattle.

Montgomery, D. R., and J. M. Buffington. 1993. Channel Classification, Prediction of Channel Response, and Assessment of Channel Condition. Washington State Timber/Fish/Wildlife Report TFW-SH10-93-002, Olympia.

Paustian, S. J. (editor), et al. 1992. Channel Type Users Guide for the Tongass National Forest, Southeast Alaska. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Alaska Region, R10 Technical Paper 26.

Rosgen, D. L. 1994. A classification of natural rivers. Catena. 22:169-199.

Schuett-Hames, D., A. Pleus, L. Bullchild, and S. Hall. 1994. Timber Fish Wildlife ambient monitoring program manual. Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, TFW-AM9-94-001.

Watershed Professionals Network. 1999. Oregon watershed assessment manual, June 1999, Prepared for the Governor’s Watershed Enhancement Board, Salem, Oregon.


Bird, E.,  2000,  Coastal Geomorphology: An Introduction John Wiley and Sons, West Sussex

Christopherson, R. W., 1997, Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs.

Davies, J. L., 1980, Geographical Variation in Coastal Development 3rd ed. Longman Group Ltd, London

Davis, Richard A., Jr., 1994, The Evolving Coast. New York: Scientific American Library

Dethier, Megan N., 1990, A marine and estuarine habitat classification system for Washington State. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Washington Department of Natural Resources.

Dolan, R., Vincent, L. and Hayden, B. 1974 Crescentic coastal landforms Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie 18(1):1-12

Downing, J., 1983, The Coast of Puget Sound, its Processes and Development, University of Washington Press, Seattle 126 pps

Emery, K. O. and Kuhn, G.G., 1982, Sea Cliffs: their processes, profiles and classification Geological Society of America Bulletin 93:644-654

Fairbridge, 1980, The estuary: its definition and geodynamic cycle in: Chemistry and Biogeochemistry of Estuaries Olausson, E. and Cato, I. eds. Wiley, NY

Inman, D. L. and Nordstrom, C.E., 1971, On the tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts Journal of Geology 79:1-21

Klee, G. A., 1999, The Coastal Environment: Toward Integrated Coastal and Marine Sanctuary Management Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River

Komar, P.D., 1998, Beach Processes and Sedimentation 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River 544 pps.

Pethick, J., 1984, An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology Edward Arnold, London.

Summerfield, M.A., 1991, Global Geomorphology , Longman Group Ltd, Essex

Trenhaile, A.S., 2002, Modeling the development of marine terraces on tectonically mobile rock coasts Marine Geology 185:341-361

Trenhaile, A. S., 1987, The Geomorphology of Rock Coasts Clarendon Press, Oxford

Wright, L.D., and Short, A. D., 1984, Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: A synthesis Marine Geology 56:93-118

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Dion, N.P. 1978 Primer on Lakes in Washington; U.S. Water Supply Bulletin #49

Holdren, C., W. Jones and J. Taggart 2001.  Managing Lakes and Reservoirs.  N. American Lake Manage. Soci. and Terren Inst. in coop. with Off. Water Assess. Watershed Prot. Div. US EPA, Madison WI

Moore, L. and K. Thornton, eds. 1988. Lake and Reservoir Restoration Guidance Manual N. American Lake Manage. Soci. for Off. of R & D Environ. Res. Lab, Corvallis, OR and Off. of Water Crit. & Stand. Division Nonpoint Sources Branch U. S. EPA, Washington, D.C.

Aquatic Habitat Guidelines White Papers

Bolton, S. and Shellberg, J. 2001. Ecological issues in floodplains and riparian corridors. Center for Streamside Studies, University of Washington. 150 pp.

Carrasquero, J. 2001. White Paper. Over-water structures: Freshwater issues. Herrera Environmental Consultants. 116 pp.

Kondolf, Nathias G., Smeltzer, M., and Kimball, L. 2001. White Paper. Freshwater gravel mining and dredging issues. Prepared for the Aquatic Habitat Guidelines Steering Committee and jointly published by the Washington State Departments of Ecology, Fish and Wildlife, and Transportation.

Miller, D. E., Skidmore, P. G., and White, D. J. 2001. White Paper. Channel Design. Inter-Fluve Inc. 109 pp.

Nightingale, B. and Simenstad, C. 2001. White Paper. Over-water structures: Marine issues. Wetland Ecosystem Team, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington. 159 pp.

Poston, T. 2001. White Paper. Treated wood issues associated with over-water structures in marine and freshwater environments. Battelle. 90 pp.

Thom, Ronald M. and Williams, Gregory D. 2001. Marine and estuarine shoreline modification issues. Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington. 136 pp.

Williams, G. D. and Thom, R. M. 2001. White Paper. Marine estuarine shoreline modification issues. Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 121 pp.

Aquatic Habitat Guidelines white papers

Protection of Marine Riparian Functions in Puget Sound, Washington

Critical Aquifer Recharge Areas

Washington Department of Ecology. July 2000. Guidance document for establishment of critical aquifer recharge area ordinance. Water Quality Program. Publication #97-30.

Cumulative Impacts

Alberti, M., Booth, D., Hill, K., Coburn, B., Avolio, C., Coe, S., and D. Spirandelli, "The Impact of urban patterns on aquatic ecosystems: An Empirical analysis in Puget lowland sub-basins". Forthcoming in Landscape Ecology.

Booth, Derek B. and Jackson, Rhett. 1997. Urbanization of aquatic systems: Degradation thresholds, stormwater detection, and the limits of mitigation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 33, #5, pp. 1077-1090.

Hill, K. Booth, D.B., and Botsford, E. 2000. A Rapid Land Cover Classification Method for Use in Urban Watershed Analysis. In Progress. Center for Urban Water Resources Management, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

May, Christopher W., Welch, E. B., Horner, R. R., Karr, J. R., and Mar, B. W. 1997. Quality indices for urbanization effects on Puget Sound lowland streams. University of Washington, Civil Engineering Department, Water Resources Series, Technical Report No. 154.

May, C. W., Horner, R. R., Karr, J. R., Mar, B. W., and Welch, E. B. 1997. Effects of urbanization on small streams in the Puget Sound lowland ecoregion. Watershed Protection Techniques, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 483-494. Available at:

Morley, S.A. and Karr, J.R. 2002. Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound Basin. Conservation Biology.

Paul, M., and Meyer, J., 2001 Streams in the Urban Landscape. Annual Review Ecological Syst.2 001 32:333-65

Schueler, T. R. 1994. The importance of imperviousness. Watershed Protection Techniques, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 100-111. Available at:

Fish and Wildlife Habitat

Knutson, K. L. and Naef, V. L. 1997. Management recommendations for Washington’s priority habitats: Riparian. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 181 pp.

E. Larsen, J. M. Azerrad, N. Nordstrom, editors. 2004. Management recommendations for Washington’s priority species, Volume IV: Birds. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington, USA.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 1999. Priority habitats and species list. Habitat Program. 32 pp.

Sobocinski, Kathryn Louise. The impact of shoreline armoring on supratidal beach fauna of central Puget Sound / Kathryn Louise Sobocinski. 2003. SH19 Th52735.

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Landscape Ecology and spatial/temporal aspects of data

Borough, P.A.  1995.  Spatial aspects of ecological data in Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology Jongman, ter Braak and Van Tongeren eds.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 199 pps

Borsuk, M.E., C.A.  Stow, K.H.  Reckhow.  2004.  A Bayesian network of eutrophication models for synthesis, prediction and uncertainty analysis Ecological Modeling 173:219-239

Holling, C.S., G. Peterson, P. Marples, J. Sendzimir, K. Redford, L. Gunderson and D. Lambert.  1996.  Self-organization in ecosystems: lumpy geometries, periodicities and morphologies in Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems    B. Walker and W. Steffern eds. pp 346-384, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Horne, J.  K., and D.  C.  Schneider.  1994.  Analysis of scale-dependent processes with dimensionless ratios Oikos 70:201-211.

Hunsaker, C.T.  and Levine, D.  A.1995 Hierarchical approaches to the study of water quality in rivers BioScience 45:193-203

Johnson, G.D., W.L. Myers and G.P. Patil 2001, Predictability of surface water pollution loading in Pennsylvania using watershed-based landscape metrics Journal of the American Water Resources Association vol 37 pp 821-835

Kemp, W.  M., J.  E.  Petersen and R.  H.  Gardner.  2001.  Scale-Dependence and the Problem of Extrapolation in Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology Gardner, R.H., W.M.  Kemp, V.S.  Kennedy and J.E.  Peterson eds.  Complexity in Ecological System Series,  Columbia University Press, New York 373 pps.

Levin, S.  A.  1992.  The problem of pattern and scale in ecologyEcology 73:1943-1967

McArdle, B.  H., J.  E.  Hewitt, and S.  F.  Thrush.  1997.  Pattern from process: It is not as easy as it looks.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 216:229-242.

Miller, J.R., M.G. Turner, E.A.H. Smithwich, C.L. Dent and E.H. Stanley.  2004.  Spatial extrapolation: the science of predicting ecological patterns and processesBioScience 54:310-320.

O’Neill, R.  V., D.L.  DeAngelis, J.B.  Waide and T.F.H.  Allen.  1986.  A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems.  Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey 

O’Sullivan, D.  and D.  J.  Unwin.  2003.  The Pitfalls and Potential of Spatial Data in Geographic Information Analysis  John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 436 pps

Patil, G. P. , R.P. Brooks, W. L. Myers, D.J. Rapport and C.Taillie 2001 Ecosystem health and its measurement at landscape scale: toward the next generation of quantitative assessments Ecosystem Health  Vol. 7 No. 4 December 2001

Rabeni, C.  F.  and S.  P.  Sowa.  2002.  A landscape approach to managing the biota of streams in Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural Resource Management J.  Liu and W.  W.  Taylor eds.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 480 pps

Reckhow, K.H.  1994.  Importance of scientific uncertainty in decision-makingEnvironmental Management 18:161-166.

Roshier, D. A., A. I. Robertson, R.T. Kingsford, D.G. Green.  2001.  Continental –scale interactions with temporary resources may explain the paradox of large populations of desert waterbirds in AustraliaLandscape Ecology 16:547-556.

Scholes, R.J. and B. Walker Reflections on ecosystem studies 1993 in An African Savanna: Synthesis of the Nylsvley Study Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 306 pps.

Sturgis, R.  B.  and L.  Murray.  1997.  Scaling of nutrient inputs to submersed plant communities: Temporal and spatial variations.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 152:89-102.

Turner, M.  G.  and S.  R.  Carpenter.  1999.  Tips and traps in interdisciplinary research Ecosystems 2:275-276. 

Turner, M.  G., R.  H.  Gardner, and O’Neill.  2001.  Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice  Springer-Verlag, New York, 401 pps.

Wiens, J.  A.  1989.  Spatial scaling in ecologyFunctional Ecology 3:385-397.

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Shoreline Alterations

Shipman, H., Dethier, M.N., Gelfenbaum, G., Fresh, K.L., and Dinicola, R.S., eds., 2010, Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5254, 262 p. Available at:


Washington Department of Ecology. 2001. Stormwater management manual for Western Washington. Vols. I-V.

Myers, R. D., Michele, L., and Myers, J. N. 1995. Surface water and groundwater on coastal bluffs: A guide for Puget Sound property owners. Shorelands and Water Resources Program, Washington Department of Ecology. Publication #95-107.

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Vegetation management

Menashe, E. 1993. Vegetation management: A guide for Puget Sound bluff property owners. Shorelands and Coastal Zone Management Program, Washington Department of Ecology. Publication #93-31.

Watershed and Regional Assessments

Ames, J., G. Graves, and C. Weller (editors). 2000. Summer chum salmon conservation initiative. Point No Point Treaty Council Tribes and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Cascadia Consulting Group. Watershed Management Plan for the Quilcene-Snow Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA 17). 2003. Jefferson County Natural Resources Division.

Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Draft Yakima Subbasin Summary. 2002.

Correa, G. Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting Factors Water Resource Inventory Area 17 Quilcene-Snow Basin. 2002. Washington State Conservation Commission.

Haring, D., 2001 Salmonid Habitat Limiting Factors Analysis: Yakima River Watershed

Haring, D. 2002 Salmonid Habitat Limiting Factors Analysis: Snohomish River Watershed (WRIA 7)

Indian Tribes of Western Washington (ITWW), Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 1997. Big Quilcene Basin pilot assessment. The Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Inventory and Analysis Project. Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission. Olympia, Washington.

May, Christopher W. 2000. Kitsap Peninsula salmonid habitat refugia study. 282 pp.

Parametrix, Inc. Stage 1 Technical Assessment as of February 2000 Water Resource Inventory Area 17. October 2000.

Snohomish County Public Works Department Surface Water Management Division. East Valley Urban Growth Areas Drainage Needs Report (DNR No. 6), Dec. 2002.

TriCounty Water Resource Agency Assessment, January 29, 2001

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Brinson, M. M. 1993. A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Technical Report WRP-DE-4.

Cowardin, L. M., Carter, V., Golet, F. C., and LaRoe, E. T. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. Office of Biological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. FWS/OBS-79/31. 103 pp.

Washington Department of Ecology. 1991. Washington State wetland rating system for Eastern Washington. Publication #91-58.

Washington Department of Ecology. 1993. Washington State wetland rating system for Western Washington. Publication #93-74.

Washington Department of Ecology. 1992. Wetland mitigation replacement ratios: Defining equivalency. Publication #92-08.

Washington Department of Ecology. 1992. Wetland buffers: Use and effectiveness. Publication #92-10.

Desbonnet, A., Pogue, P., Lee, V., and Wolff, N. 1994. Vegetated buffers in the coastal zone: A summary review and bibliography. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansett, Rhode Island. Technical Report No. 2064. 72 pp.

McMillan, A. 2000. The science of wetland buffers and its implications for the management of wetlands. Master's Thesis. The Evergreen State College.

Azous, A. L. and Horner, R. R., editors. 1997. Wetlands and urbanization: Implications for the future. Final report of the Puget Sound Wetlands and Stormwater Management Research Program. Available at:

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