Harvesting is a way to mechanically remove milfoil in order to provide open areas of water for recreational activities and navigation. Harvesting immediately removes surfacing milfoil mats, but since the cut plants grow back (sometimes within weeks), the same area may need to be harvested twice or more per growing season. Harvesting machines (harvesters) are specialized underwater mowing machines specifically designed to cut and collect aquatic plants. Cut plants are immediately removed from the water via a conveyer belt. The cut plants are stored on the machine until they can be off-loaded and disposed of properly. Several manufacturers sell various sizes and models of machine, and there are firms that contract for harvesting operations. Click here for more information about harvesting.
Waterbodies suitable for harvesting programs include larger lakes (about 100 acres or more), and rivers with widespread, well-established milfoil populations, where milfoil eradication is not an option. Since on-going harvesting operations are expensive, having a large lake association, residential community, or a motivated local government to share the harvesting costs is crucial.
Harvesting is not recommended in waterbodies with early infestations of milfoil since the resulting fragments are never completely contained and harvesting may increase the spread of milfoil throughout the waterbody. Because harvesting is a whole-lake activity it should be conducted under the direction of an integrated aquatic vegetation management lake plan. Factors to consider when designing a harvesting program include:
A reliable funding source, such as a Lake Management District or a committed local government, is necessary to provide funding either to purchase and operate a harvester or to contract for harvesting on an annual basis. In at least one jurisdiction (Skagit County, Washington), the County trained volunteers to operate the County-owned harvester to remove milfoil on local lakes. However, liability may become an issue with volunteers using harvesters since harvesting machines have been known to capsize when improperly filled or overloaded.
A lake committee and/or local government staff identifies acreages and areas to be harvested within the lake. Priorities may be determined by who funds the program. For example, a local government will be more interested in harvesting public areas, whereas the lake group may be interested in harvesting the areas in front their homes. In general, high use areas such as public parks, community access points, navigation channels, public boat launches, and water ski lanes receive priority for clearing. Because harvesters are large machines and are difficult to maneuver near-shore between and around docks, in at least one harvesting program (Long Lake, Thurston County), harvesting was limited to areas outside of the docks. Individual homeowners, at their discretion, were considered responsible for removing plants growing between the end of the dock and their shoreline.
Prior to harvesting, machinery launch sites (a paved ramp with deep water is best), and plant disposal off-loading sites need to be identified. A summer harvesting schedule must be developed. If harvesting services are contracted, bid documents and a contract need to be prepared. Hydraulic Project Approval must be obtained from Washington Fish and Wildlife.
Harvesting starts when plants have neared or approached the water surface. The harvester’s cutting head is lowered into the water and the harvester moves forward, cutting and collecting plants as it advances. Harvesters vary in size and capability. Most cut plants about five feet below the water and in a swath between five and ten feet wide. Bigger, faster machines with larger cutting heads and holding capacities may be more efficient, but are also less maneuverable. Depending on time of year, weather, and depth of cut, the same area may need to be harvested again in a few weeks.
The cuttings are collected on a conveyer belt and deposited in a holding area on board. Although the harvester collects most plant materials as it operates, inevitably some fragments are missed. Not overloading the carrying capacity of the harvester helps to keep plant fragments to a minimum. Along with plants, the harvester also inadvertently collects small fish (some are able to escape from the conveyer belt) and invertebrates.
When the plant storage area is filled, the harvester must off-load the cut plants. Plants can be off-loaded to either a barge stationed offshore or to a trailer or dump truck. These plants may be used as compost or disposed of in a land fill. As the distance from the work area to the off-loading site increases, the time spent on plant disposal activities can exceed the time spent cutting. This can add greatly to the duration and expense of the project and is a critical limitation to some harvesting projects. The plant density and machine specifications will also determine how often the harvester needs to off-load the cut plants.
Delays in the harvesting schedule can result from high winds, thunderstorms, and mechanical failure. Unscheduled maintenance or machine breakdowns can also result in lost harvesting time.
Complaints about harvesting have included reports by homeowners that plant fragments wash up more frequently on their beaches after harvesting. Homeowners may also report that their neighbor’s property was harvested sooner or the job done more thoroughly than at their own property. It is important to establish some clear guidelines and policies to help make decisions and to settle disputes.
While some people view harvesting as an excellent non-chemical control method for milfoil, others scoff at the waste of money to “merely mow the weeds.” Harvesting plants has the added benefit of removing nutrients from the waterbody that are tied up in the plant biomass. Because only the top part of the plant is removed, the rest of the plants remain for habitat and sediment stabilization.
Harvesters are large machines and occasionally hydraulic fluid or fuel are leaked or spilled. The operator should have a spill plan and containment equipment available at all times. When working in shallow water, the propulsion system or the cutter head can sometimes churn up the sediment creating turbid water. Significant numbers of fish can be removed from a waterbody during harvesting activities as fish become collected along with the cut plants (Mikol, 1985). These are often juvenile fish, because larger fish can more easily avoid the harvester. Long term milfoil harvesting programs in Washington state include; the Columbia River, Lake Washington, and Green Lake. There is also a program aimed at native plant control on Long Lake (Thurston County).
Mikol, G. F. 1985. Effects of harvesting on aquatic vegetation and juvenile fish populations at Saratoga Lake, New York. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 23: 59-63.
Your Aquatic Plant Harvesting Program: A How-To Field Manual. Produced by the Wisconsin Lakes Partnership - University of Wisconsin-Extension, Wisconsin Association of Lakes, and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Publication FH-205-97
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