Puget Sound Olympia

Municipal Stormwater

Effectiveness Monitoring of Stormwater Management Program Activities

The goals of SAM Effectiveness Studies are to measure the effectiveness of stormwater management actions and communicate widely applicable information on what works and what doesn’t work in the various situations. For the Effectiveness Monitoring element of SAM, 91 of 94 eligible Western Washington Phase I and II Municipal Stormwater Permittees chose to participate fully via the cost sharing program. One Municipal Stormwater permittee chose "Option 2" to fully opt-out of the pooled program and conduct a large study for stormwater management in their jurisdictional area (Tacoma); and two Municipal Stormwater permittees chose the partial participation "Option 3" (Seattle and Clark County).

Process to select a second round of studies

Approximately $1.3 million is available for a second round of studies. We asked project proponents with ideas for new studies to review the guidelines for the proposals and submit a letter of intent (LOI) by July 18, 2016.

Project Selection Schedule
Project Selection Stage Description Completed
  Request for study ideas advertised May 18, 2016
Stage 1 Letter of intent (LOI) from project proponent due to SAM Coordinator
Here are the LOIs, numbered roughly in order received: LOI_01, LOI_02, LOI_03, LOI_04, LOI_05, LOI_06, LOI_07, LOI_08, LOI_09, LOI_10, LOI_11, LOI_12, LOI_13, LOI_14, LOI_15, LOI_16, LOI_17, LOI_18, LOI_19, LOI_20, LOI_21
July 18, 2016
The Effectiveness Studies subgroup and Stormwater Work Group agreed that all of the LOIs can move forward. September 23, 2016
Stage 2 Full proposal from project proponent due to SAM Coordinator
Here are the full proposals, numbered in the order received: FP01, FP02, FP03, FP04, FP05, FP06, FP07, FP08*, FP09, FP10
*updated
December 12, 2016
Stage 3 Technical review complete
Ecology review, Effectiveness subgroup review
February 2017
Stage 4 Presentations at SAM Effectiveness Studies Workshop:
Workshop presentation (navigate within using PDF bookmarks)
Voting results
April 11, 2017
Stage 5 SWG recommendations for project funding June 7, 2017

Contracted Effectiveness Studies (By Topic)

Bioinfiltration soil mix amendment study with plants and fungi

US Fish and Wildlife is partnering with Washington State University in Puyallup and Washington State Department of Transportation to test the effectiveness of the bioretention soil mix with fungus and plants to remove toxicity from highway runoff to daphnids and zebrafish. The study will determine whether the incorporation of plants and/or fungi into an optimized bioretention soil mix has a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity, effluent water chemistry and toxicity; and soil microbial diversity of stormwater runoff under replicated field conditions. Results are intended to address SAM's goal to determine "what soil amendment and bioretention soil mixes combined with plant selection combines optimum removal of nutrients, bacteria, and metals?"

Timeline

WSU will develop the QAPP and prepare bioretention columns for the study during the spring and summer of 2016. Stormwater dosing and performance monitoring will occur for two years summer 2016-2018. Accumulation will be evaluated within the bioretention cell soils at three depths, and the plants roots and shoots post the experimental period (winter 2018). Results and data presentation are anticipated in late 2018.

Scope of Work

Scope of Work

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Task 1: QAPP development D1
Task 2: Build and condition bioretention cells, baseline testing of materials D2
Task 3: Baseline water quality, sediment chemistry and cell conditions D3.1 D3.2 D3.3
Task 4: Report on conditioned cell’s microbiology, chemistry, toxicity D4.1 D4.2
Task 5: Monitoring - 6 month reports on flow, water quality and toxicity D5.1 D5.2 D5.3
Task 6: Report on interim results regarding accumulation/mobilization D6.1
Task 7: Final report, fact sheet and 2 presentations D7.1a D7.1b D7.1c D7.1d

Bioretention soil mix toxicity reduction study (Completed)

US Fish and Wildlife partnered with Washington State University in Puyallup , NOAA-Fisheries and the Suquamish Tribe to test the effectiveness of the bioretention soil mix to remove toxicity from highway runoff to adult and embryonic Coho salmon. The SAM project (Scope of Work) contributed to an existing, larger scale study to specifically learn how well the “60/40” mix prevents toxicity to salmon.

Coho salmon (adults and fertilized eggs) were exposed to filtered and unfiltered stormwater runoff over the 2014-2015 winter. The final report and SAM symposium presentation are provided. Results show that the 60/40 bioretention mix specified in the Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington prevents lethal toxicity to adult and embryonic Coho salmon.

WSU press release

NOAA media website related to this ongoing research.

Bioinfiltration soil mix capture and treatment of PCBs

King County is the lead for this PCB treatment effectiveness study of Ecology’s default bioretention soil (60/40mix). The study will gather information that describes the potential for bioretention soils to sequester PCBs from stormwater. This project is being conducted in conjunction with a separate study led by the Washington State University (WSU) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to evaluate the effects of plants and fungi on rain garden performance over time. The merging of these two projects creates efficiencies in storm sample collection and also reduces the number of potentially confounding variables by evaluating PCB cycling within rain garden mesocosms. The project will use stormwater gathered from I-5 near the ship canal in Seattle.

Timeline

The project will take approximately 1.5 to 2 years. King County will develop the QAPP and WSU will prepare new bioretention columns during the summer of 2016. Stormwater dosing and performance monitoring will take place starting in the fall of 2016. The goal is to sample 8 storms; influent, effluent and bioretention cell soils for PCB congeners. The final results and data presentation are anticipated in late 2018.

Scope of Work

Scope of Work

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Task 1: Equipment invoices, draft and final QAPP D1 D2 QAPP
Task 2: Stormwater and soil sampling – semiannual progress reports D3 and D4 D5 D6
Task 3: Data year 1 and year 2 validation memorandum D7 D8
Task 4: Draft and final report, and final project database D9 D10 database
Task 5: Project presentation D11

Echo Lake highway retrofits

King County is the lead agency and will monitor the effectiveness of a 3 mile multiyear retrofit of stormwater treatment facilities added along the Aurora Corridor (part of State Route 99) in Shoreline, Washington, where highway, commercial and residential stormwater is received by Echo Lake. This project will provide effectiveness data for individual BMPs (bioretention planter boxes and Filterra units), as well as the collective system effectiveness of the detention tank and ultimate reductions in the stormwater runoff as it discharges to Echo Lake. This project has a small effort to summarize Echo Lake existing monitoring and potential for detecting improvement in lake water quality. This study was designed to address data gaps identified by the Washington State Stormwater Work Group (SWG) in the effectiveness of stormwater treatment technologies used in the Puget Sound Region.

Timeline

Construction within the Echo Lake drainage basin began in 2011 and is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2015. Monitoring will include flow around the detention tank (in/out), stormwater quality of individual BMPs (in/out) and the detention tank (in/out), and stormwater quality discharged to Echo Lake. Flow monitoring will start first in February 2015, and water quality monitoring next in fall 2015 and continue for the 2015-2016 winter and spring. Project progress reports are provided quarterly with a draft report in summer of 2017.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work | Amendment 1

Task 1: Planning progress reports, draft and final QAPP D1.1 D1.2 D1.3 D1.4
Task 2: Field sampling and analysis, quarterly progress reports D2.1 D2.2 D2.3 D2.4
Task 3: Echo Lake historical data summary report, draft and final D3.1 D3.2
Task 4: Data analysis progress reports, draft and final project report D4.1a
D4.1b
D4.2 D4.3
Task 5: Distribution of findings: EIM, BMP database, presentations D5.1 D5.2 D5.3 SAM
Symposium presentation
D5.4 D5.5 D5.6
Task 6: Project Management: semi-annual progress reports D6.1 D6.2 D6.3 D6.4 D6.5 D6.6 D6.7

Redmond Paired Watershed Study (RPWS)

The City of Redmond is the lead agency on this multiyear very large scale stormwater management effectiveness study. There are seven watersheds in this study design: three “application” watersheds, two “reference” watersheds, and two “control” watersheds. All are located in and around the City of Redmond, WA. This project will monitor the streams draining these watersheds for various hydrologic, chemical physical habitat, and biological indicators. The “application” watersheds will undergo large scale retrofits to bring the watershed into current WA stormwater management standards. The “control” watersheds will progress at a normal timeline of development. The “reference” watersheds are will not develop as they are in relatively protected environs.

Timeline

The current SAM funded study elements (Tasks 1-5 below) include a literature review, study design and QAPP will be developed under the first phase of this project. The second phase will also be funded by SAM and will include the monitoring of the seven watersheds as retrofits occur in the treatment watershed.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work | Amendment 1

Task 1: Literature review for monitoring approaches and key indicators D1
Task 2: Experimental design for monitoring D2a
Task 3: Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP); multiple reviews D3a D3b-c
Task 4: Steering committee coordination during QAPP development D4a
Task 5: Redmond Project Management (deliverables)
Task 6: Initial purchase of monitoring equipment D6.1
Task 7: Installation of equipment D7.1
Task 8: King County flow and in-situ WQ data Stored in King County Hydrologic Information Center (search RPWS) D8.3 2015 2016 2017 2018
Task 9: King County Data Quality Assurance reports D9.1 2015 2016 2017 2018
Task 10: King County Participation in Meetings D10.1a D10.1b D10.1c
Task 11: King County Project Management – Annual Report D11.1 2015 2016 2017 2018
Task B1: Study Startup Activities (field sites, training, SQL database) DB1.1 DB1.2 DB1.3
Task B2: Water Year 2016 Monitoring Implementation
Subtask B2.1: Hydrological Summary DB2.1
Subtask B2.2: Water Quality Summary DB2.2
Subtask B2.3: Sediment Quality Summary DB2.3
Subtask B2.4: Physical Habitat Summary DB2.4
Subtask B2.5: Biological Habitat Summary DB2.5
Subtask B2.6 Water Year 2016 Summary Report (draft, final, fact sheet) DB2.6a DB2.6b DB2.6c
Subtask B2.8 Progress Reports DB2.8 DB2.8b
Task B3: Water Year 2017 Monitoring Implementation
Subtask B3.1: Hydrological Summary DB3.1
Subtask B3.2: Water Quality Summary DB3.2
Subtask B3.3: Sediment Quality Summary DB3.3
Subtask B3.4: Physical Habitat Summary DB3.4
Subtask B3.5: Biological Habitat Summary DB3.5
Subtask B3.6 Water Year 2017 Summary Report (draft, final, fact sheet) DB3.6a DB3.6b DB3.6c
Task B4: Water Year 2018 Monitoring Implementation
Subtask B4.1: Hydrological Summary DB4.1
Subtask B4.2: Water Quality Summary DB4.2
Subtask B4.3: Sediment Quality Summary DB4.3
Subtask B4.4: Physical Habitat Summary DB4.4
Subtask B4.5: Biological Habitat Summary DB4.5
Subtask B4.6 Water Year 2018 Summary Report (draft, final, fact sheet) DB4.6a DB4.6b DB4.6c

Federal Way bioretention and pond retrofit in Hylebos headwaters

King County is the lead agency and will monitor the effectiveness of a complex retrofit in Federal Way. Two large bioretention stormwater treatment facilities and a major stormwater pond restoration were undertaken in 2014 by the City of Federal Way under a grant from Ecology. King County will monitor the effectiveness of the individual bioretention facilities (in/out) and the detention pond/engineered wetland combo retrofit. In addition the effectiveness of the retrofitted regional detention facility will be monitored and the instream impacts to water quality and benthic macroinvertebrates in NF West Hylebos Creek. This study was designed to address data gaps identified by the Washington State Stormwater Work Group (SWG) in the effectiveness of stormwater treatment technologies used in the Puget Sound Region.

Timeline

Retrofit construction of the bioretention facilities and detention pond/engineered wetland was completed in 2014. Stormwater monitoring will span the winters of 2015-16 and 2016-17. Project progress reports are provided quarterly with a draft report in winter of 2017-18.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work | Amendment 1

Task 1: Draft and final QAPP D1.1 D1.2 project website link (coming soon)
Task 2: Field sampling and analysis, quarterly progress reports D2.1 D2.2 D2.3 D2.4 D2.5 D2.6
Task 3: Data analysis progress reports, draft and final project report D3.1 D3.2 D3.3
Task 4: Distribution of findings: EIM, BMP database, presentations D4.1 D4.2 D4.3 D4.4
Task 5: Project Management: semi-annual progress reports D5.1 D5.2 D5.3 D5.4 D5.5 D5.6 D5.7 D5.8 D5.9
Task 6: (conditional) Long detention time sampling; progress reports D6.1 D6.2 D6.3 D6.4 D6.5

Bellingham LID Hydrologic Performance Study

The City of Bellingham is the lead agency for this hydrologic performance evaluation of bioretention BMPs. The City of Bellingham and its subcontractors are selecting sites throughout the Puget Sound region and developing a monitoring design to evaluate the flow reduction effectiveness of bioretention facilities designed according to the Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington. As-built information will be reviewed and modeling and monitoring results will be compared.

Timeline

This project is divided into two phases; the first phase included the study design, site selection and QAPP development. The second phase is monitoring of the bioretention facilities during 2016 and 2017.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work | Amendment 1 | Amendment 2 | Amendment 3

Task 1: Project management and formation of a technical committee; quarterly progress reports (D1.1) Q4 2015 Q1 2016 Q2 Q3 Q4
  Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3
Task 2: Site selection criteria and list of sites D2.1 D2.2-2.3
Task 3: QAPP development, draft and final D3.1 D3.2
Task 4: Monitoring implementation; equipment and initial site reviews D4.1 D4.2 D4.3 D4.4 D4.5 D4.6 D4.7
Task 5: Data analysis and committee review of interim results D5.1 SAM
Symposium presentation
D5.2 D5.3 D5.4
Task 6: Draft report, presentation, final report, and fact sheet D6.1 D6.2 D6.3 D6.4

Bioretention and rain garden protocol development

The city of Puyallup is partnering with Washington State University Extension, the Washington Stormwater Center and Stewardship Partners to develop a protocol to create a regional field protocol to be implemented by the lay-person to gather both technical and social science data on acceptance and performance of bioretention facilities and rain gardens. This is a new project with the city of Puyallup for SAM. This study addresses the SAM goal to learn more about LID effectiveness. This study will gather data to answer what factors impact the success of rain gardens and bioretention function from construction, sizing, maintenance, function, and landowner buy-in.

Timeline

The City of Puyallup and subcontractors will develop a protocol to gather field data on both independent (e.g. size, style, maintenance, plant selection, soil structure/quality) and response variables (evidence of bypass, erosion, bare soil, sedimentation, community perception and acceptance) from rain garden and bioretention installations in western Washington. Trial study for ease of use and quality of data gathered will be evaluated to revise the protocol and questions for two iterations. The final tested protocol and publically available database are deliverables with a full scale regional study design. Permittees will be able to use the same protocol to compare and share data to troubleshoot and evaluate progress with rain garden and bioretention facilities in the region.

Scope of Work

Scope of Work

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Task 1.1: Literature Review, protocol version 1, survey version 1, D1.1 D1.2 D1.3
Task 1.2: Version 1 Protocol implementation materials, training, results memo, TAC meeting summary, presentation to SWG D1.4 D1.5 D1.6 D1.7 D1.8 SAM
Symposium presentation
Task 2: Version 2 Protocol materials, training, results memo, TAC meeting technical report for both rounds, and final (v3) protocol D2.1 D2.2 D2.3 D2.4 D2.5 D2.6
Task 3: Final Protocol, publish on website, fact sheet and presentation on results and a proposal for regional implementation D3.1 D3.2

Lakewood Source Control Business Survey

The City of Lakewood is the lead agency for this stormwater source control effectiveness study that will focus on small business and commercial property owners to learn what activities and impediments exist to control pollution sources to stormwater. This IAA also has a separate task (#7) for source identification and illicit discharge data analysis from the Permittees incident tracking reports. See Ecology's SIDIR page for these tasks.

Timeline

This source control survey and data analysis will take approximately 13 months and is the first part of a three part study. This currently funded part 1 will move quickly to summarize what business source control activities are used by stormwater permittees, the final report (Task 5) is anticipated in summer of 2016. The second and third parts will build off this first element and are envisioned to include a building a coordinated inspection framework and a broader data analysis.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work | Amendment 1 | Amendment 2

Task 1: Form a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) and prepare the survey D1.1 D1.2 D1.3 D1.4 D1.5
Task 2: Transmit survey, track and store responses D2
Task 3: Create database of responses and supplied data, tech memo draft and final D3.1 (includes D4) D3.2
Task 4: Analyze data supplied by permittees, tech memo of interim results see above
Task 5: Project report, draft and final D5.1 D5.2
Task 6: TAC coordination, minutes and memos D6.1 D6.2 D6.3 D6.4
Task 7: IDDE Response Compilation from permittee annual reports D7.1 D7.2 D7.3
(Mtg on 12/15/15)
D7.4 D7.5 D7.7
Final Report
D7.8 SAM
Symposium presentation
Task 8: Project Management, monthly reports D8.1 D8.2 D8.3 D8.4 D8.5 D8.6 D8.7
D8.8 D8.9 D8.10 D8.11 D8.12 D8.13 D8.14
D8.15 D8.16 D8.17 D8.18 D8.19 D8.20 D8.21
D8.22

King County Catch Basin Cleaning Effectiveness Study

King County is the lead agency for this stormwater catch basin cleaning effectiveness study that will evaluate existing records for catch basin (CB) inspection and maintenance. The goal is to identify correlating factors that could be used to predict CB maintenance needs and to examine inspection and maintenance program designs among Western Washington jurisdictions to identify cost efficiencies in program implementation.

Timeline

This project will take approximately 3 years. A survey to permittees is planned for the winter of 2016 and database development in 2017. The remainder of the project will be data analysis, report writing and findings communication.

Project Tasks and Deliverables

Scope of Work |

Task 1: Project Management, form the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), semi-annual reports D1.1 D1.2 D1.3 D1.4 D1.5
Task 2: Survey for data, TAC meeting #1, Tech Memo of respondents, TAC meeting #2 D2.1 D2.2 D2.3 D2.4
Task 3: Create database of responses and prepare preliminary data review D3.1
Task 4: Analyze data for cost-savings approaches, prepare preliminary cost review D4.1
Task 5: Meet with TAC and develop project report, draft and final D5.1 D5.2 D5.3
Task 6: Distribute Findings: database, responsive files, Fact Sheet, two presentations D6.1 D6.2 D6.3 D6.4a D6.4b

Option 2

Tacoma – Stormwater Outfall Monitoring

The city of Tacoma will continue and expand the scale of their outfall monitoring conducted under the old permit in the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in the Tacoma waterfront. Stormwater monitoring will be conducted from October 2014 to the end of the permit. Annual reports will be submitted to Ecology summarizing the preceding water year’s monitoring activities and data.

City of Tacoma, 2014. Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways Stormwater Monitoring QAPP

Option 3

Seattle – Street sweeping effectiveness study

Seattle Public Utilities is conducting a street sweeping effectiveness study as part of their MS4 permit section S8.C. The project will quantify the direct effects of street sweeping on stormwater quality using a before/after-control/impact (BACI) study design. Monitoring will be conducted from September 2014 -2016. The final report is anticipated in March 2017.

SPU, 2014. Street Sweeping Water Quality Effectiveness QAPP

Clark County – Permeable pavement effectiveness study

Clark County plans to continue monitoring of the effectiveness of permeable pavement and maintenance impacts to the BMPs performance as part of their MS4 permit section S8.C. QAPP